Did You Know? 17 Incredible Bawean Deer Facts

Bawean deer facts are interesting.

Bawean deer (Axis kuhlii)are a Critically Endangered species of deer that are endemic to Bawean Island, situated in the Java Sea. Bawean deer are also known by many other names such as Bawean hog deer, Kuhl's hog deer, Rusa bawean, Ciervo de Kuhl, Ciervo porquerizo de Kuhl, and Cerf de Bawean. These deer mainly prefer to live in secondary forest, but can be sometimes found in a primary forest as well. These wild animals have an endangered population in their already small habitat. Many efforts are being taken to increase their population, from captive breeding to thinning of teak plantations. These deer are rather shy in nature and do nott like to come into human contact. In the 2018 Asian Games, they were used as a mascot to raise awareness for these animals. During the torch relay of the ceremony, the Wildlife of Ragunan of Jakarta created an exhibition about the Bawean deer to help people learn about this threatened species.

Continue reading to learn more about the Bawean deer. If you like this article, then also check out langur monkey and gray langur.

Bawean Deer

Fact File

What do they prey on?


What do they eat?


Average litter size?


How much do they weigh?

110-132 lb (50-60 kg)

How long are they?

55 in (140 cm)

How tall are they?

25.6-27.5 in (65-70 cm)

What do they look like?


Skin Type


What are their main threats?


What is their conservation status?

Critically Endangered

Where you'll find them

Primary and secondary forest


Bawean Island





Scientific Name

Axis kuhlii





Bawean Deer Interesting Facts

What type of animal is a Bawean deer?

The Bawean deer (Axis kuhlii) is a species of deer.

What class of animal does a Bawean deer belong to?

The Bawean deer or Bawean hog deer belongs to the class Mammalia of animals.

How many Bawean deers are there in the world?

The exact population of Bawean deer or Kuhl's hog deer in its range it around 200-500 deer. These deer are endemic to one specific region and the region is not very big. Many times in history, their population has been seen to decline but then increased again. At this moment, the population trend of this deer is in a stable state. The main threats this species has faced over the years are habitat loss and uncontrolled hunting. Humans have converted the forests of Bawean with teak trees and have hunted this species relentlessly. Hunting may have stopped now, but the damage to their population has already been done. They are no longer just an Endangered species, a Critically Endangered species. Another interesting deer is the key deer.

Where does a Bawean deer live?

These deer are endemic to the Bawean Island which is located in the Java Sea, about 93 mi (150 km) north to the coast of Java of Indonesia. The deer can mainly be seen around Mount Bulu which is in the southwest and the mountain range that is in the center of the island. Other than that, these deer also have been known to occupy Tanjung Cina which is cut-off from the Bawean island, but is devoid of any human occupancy and has a hilly region.

What is a Bawean deer's habitat?

The primary habitat of the Bawean deer or Ciervo de Kuhl is any secondary forest, although they are can be spotted in primary forests as well. They mainly occupy denser areas in the secondary forest where there is a dense undergrowth for the deer to rest upon during the daytime. These deer are mainly seen in hill forests at an altitude of up to 1640 ft (500 m). They can often be seen roaming around croplands for food and burned grasslands during the dry seasons.

Who do Bawean deers live with?

Unlike most species of deer, Bawean deer or Ciervo porquerizo de Kuhl like to live solitary lives. They are not known to form herds to roam around and they only come together during the breeding season. However, sometimes pairs of a buck and a doe or a doe and a fawn can be seen.

How long does a Bawean deer live?

Not much is known about the lifespan of this species in the wild, but one Bawean deer lived for about 18 years in captivity. A similar species to the Bawean deer lives for about 20 years. We can assume that their lifespan is somewhere in this range.

How do they reproduce?

The mating season for the Bawean deer is known to happen during the months of September and October. The males fight each other during the breeding season, however not much is known about the courtship behavior between males and females. The gestation period for the female is about 225–230 days. After the gestation period ends, she usually gives birth to one fawn mainly during the months of February to June. On rare occasions, a Bawean deer gives birth to twins. In captivity, these deer can breed all year round with an interval of nine months.

What is their conservation status?

The conservation status of the Bawean deer or Rusa bawean (Axis kuhlii) according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List is listed as a Critically Endangered species. These deer have been included in the CITES Appendix I as a part of managing their population. Many other preserving actions have been taken such as banning the hunting of the deer, thinning the density of teak plantations, looking over grassy areas and burned areas in the forests, and lastly captive breeding. Captive breeding of these animals has helped to increase their population.

Bawean Deer Fun Facts

What do Bawean deers look like?

The Bawean deer or Bawean hog deer (Axis kuhlii) has almost the same appearance as the hog deer. Bawean deer are usually brown-yellow in color. The lips are of a lighter color and the eyes of the deer are surrounded by lighter-colored hair. They have a dark-colored muzzle on top of their mouth. The deer has a bushy and long tail that has a white underpart. The adult males have antlers that have three prongs. The antlers are about 10-18.5 in (25-47 cm) long.

Bawean deer are nocturnal animals.

How cute are they?

Bawean deer or Kuhl's hog deer are beautiful-looking creatures, like the Axis deer of India. Adult males have magnificent antlers and all deer are known to be quite shy and secretive nature which gives them a certain charm.

How do they communicate?

Bawean deer or Cerf de Bawean (Axis kuhlii) communicate vocally and by scent. They mark their territories and ward off predators. If one among the pairs gets lost, they make a sharp bark-like noise to call out to the lost ones. The mothers use the same vocal cue to communicate with their young ones as well. The males may bark and stomp their feet on the ground when they challenge one another.

How big is a Bawean deer?

The Bawean deer grow up to around 55 in (140 cm) in terms of length and 25.6-27.5 in (65-70 cm) in terms of height. They are slightly shorter in length than a reindeer. A reindeer is about 64-84 in (162-214 cm) in length.

How fast can a Bawean deer move?

The exact speed at which the Bawean hog deer moves is not known, but they move at a moderate pace. In the Asian Games of 2018, Bawean hog deer were used as a mascot and they symbolized speed in the games.

How much does a Bawean deer weigh?

Bawean hog deer weigh about 110-132 lb (50-60 kg).

What are the male and female names of the species?

The males and females of this species have many names. A male deer can be called a stag, buck, hart, or bull. A female deer can be called a hind, cow, or doe. A group of deer is called a bevy or a herd.

What would you call a baby Bawean deer?

Bawean deer babies are called fawns or calves like any other deer species.

What do they eat?

Bawean hog deer are herbivorous in nature. They feed on plant-based foods like leaves, grasses, herbs, and twigs. They like to munch on Cassava plant leaves. They can sometimes be seen roaming around in croplands where they feed on corn and grasses that grow between the crops.

Are they active?

These deer are moderately active and are mainly nocturnal animals. In the daytime, they rest in the ground and at night, they forage for food. These deer are also known to fight amongst themselves during the breeding season. Otherwise, they are shy and secretive in nature.

Would they make a good pet?

Ciervo de Kuhl (Ciervo porquerizo de Kuhl) are wild animals. They require a certain habitat to survive, and if they are taken from their wild habitat, it might harm these deer. However, some are known to live in zoos. They also have an endangered population in the wild, so for the purpose of increasing their population, some are being taken for captive breeding.

Did you know...

Bawean deer (Axis kuhlii) do not respond aggressively when they are threatened. They rather try to hide by moving at a slow pace with no sudden movements. They do it in the hope of hiding undetected by whatever is the danger they are facing.

Even though the main reason for the endangered population of these deer has been caused by humans, successful conservation actions have been taken. Since these actions have been implemented, only about five deer have died from human causes.

Why are deers considered sacred?

Deer are considered sacred in the Nara prefecture of Japan. They are considered as messengers of Gods. Deer even symbolize the city of Nara. There is another deer located at Itsukushima Shrine in Miyajima of Hiroshima. This deer is also considered as a messenger of God and thought to be sacred.

Why is the Bawean deer endangered?

Bawean deer are endangered due to extensive hunting activities which happened around 500 years ago. Back in the '60s, the original habitat of Bawean deer was replaced by teak plantations, placing more pressure on their survival. Currently, the population is stable and most human-based killings are due to vehicular accidents.

Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly animal facts for everyone to discover! Learn more about some other mammals from our colobus monkey facts and golden-headed lion tamarin facts pages.

You can even occupy yourself at home by coloring in one of our free printable langur coloring pages



At Kidadl we pride ourselves on offering families original ideas to make the most of time spent together at home or out and about, wherever you are in the world. We strive to recommend the very best things that are suggested by our community and are things we would do ourselves - our aim is to be the trusted friend to parents.

We try our very best, but cannot guarantee perfection. We will always aim to give you accurate information at the date of publication - however, information does change, so it’s important you do your own research, double-check and make the decision that is right for your family.

Kidadl provides inspiration to entertain and educate your children. We recognise that not all activities and ideas are appropriate and suitable for all children and families or in all circumstances. Our recommended activities are based on age but these are a guide. We recommend that these ideas are used as inspiration, that ideas are undertaken with appropriate adult supervision, and that each adult uses their own discretion and knowledge of their children to consider the safety and suitability.

Kidadl cannot accept liability for the execution of these ideas, and parental supervision is advised at all times, as safety is paramount. Anyone using the information provided by Kidadl does so at their own risk and we can not accept liability if things go wrong.

Sponsorship & Advertising Policy

Kidadl is independent and to make our service free to you the reader we are supported by advertising.

We hope you love our recommendations for products and services! What we suggest is selected independently by the Kidadl team. If you purchase using the buy now button we may earn a small commission. This does not influence our choices. Please note: prices are correct and items are available at the time the article was published.

Kidadl has a number of affiliate partners that we work with including Amazon. Please note that Kidadl is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.

We also link to other websites, but are not responsible for their content.

Read our Sponsorship & Advertising Policy
Get The Kidadl Newsletter

1,000 of inspirational ideas direct to your inbox for things to do with your kids.

Thank you! Your newsletter will be with you soon.
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
No items found.
No items found.